Английский язык. Теория и практика. Употребление времен

Ричард Грант, 2021

Употребление времен – это шестнадцатое учебное пособие из серии "Английский язык. Теория и практика". Освоив теоретический материал, представленный в данной серии, и выполнив более 600 упражнений для самоконтроля, ваш словарный запас будет состоять из более чем 6 000 английских слов и выражений, что позволит вам успешно сдать такие международные экзамены по английскому языку, как TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language), IELTS (International English Language Testing System) и другие.


Разница между The Present Continuous и The Present Simple

1. Present Continuous применяется для описания ситуаций и действий, которые говорящий считает временными. Present Simple описывает ситуации, которые говорящий воспринимает как постоянные.

Linda is working at the ice cream shop during summer. Летом Линда работает в магазине мороженого. (когда лето закончится, Линда больше не будет работать в этом месте.)

Sam works as a manager at the ice cream shop. Сэм работает управляющим в магазине мороженого. (это его постоянная работа)

2. Если мы описываем повторяющиеся действия, которые связаны с настоящим моментом, используем Present Continuous. А если с настоящим моментом они не связаны, употребляем Present Simple.

I'm speaking with my mom a lot these days. В последнее время я часто говорю с мамой по телефону. (есть связь с текущим моментом)

I speak with my aunt who lives in New York twice a year. Дважды в год я разговариваю со своей тетей, которая живет в Нью-Йорке. (нет связи с настоящим моментом)

3. Present Continuous описывает действие, происходящее в настоящий момент. Present Simple используется для описания фактов, которые остаются верными в любой момент времени.

Kathy is speaking with her father at the moment. Сейчас Кэти говорит со своим отцом. (она говорит в настоящий момент времени, разговор будет закончен)

Kathy speaks English. Кэти говорит по-английски. (она умеет говорить по-английски, это утверждение остается фактом в любой момент времени)

Упражнение 1

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. I (to take) my sister to school now. I (to take) her to school every day. 2. He (to work) in the centre of Chicago. 3. Tom (to play) football on Saturday. 4. His father (not to watch) TV at the moment. He (to sleep) because he (to be) tired. 5. I (to sit) in the waiting room at the doctor’s now. 6. I (not to know) what to give my brother for his birthday. 7. I often (to go) to see my friends in the evening. 8. You (to keep) to any special diet? — Well, I (not to think) it (to be) good to eat a lot of meat. I usually (to have) meat only once a week. I (to eat) lots of fruit and vegetables. 9. He (to help) his father now. He (to help) his father very often. 10. He (to work) in the centre of Chicago? 11. He (not to play) football every day. 12. Pat (not to cook) dinner at the moment. She (to talk) on the phone. She (to cook) dinner every Monday. 13. I (not to work) in my office now. 14. They (to want) to publish this book in July?

Упражнение 2

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. We sometimes (to go) to the cinema or to a disco club on Sunday. 2. He (to learn) English now because he (to want) to get a better job. 3. At the moment they (to go) to the river for a swim. They usually (to go) to the river for a swim. 4. He (not to work) in the centre of Chicago. 5. I (to wear) a suit now. 6. I (not to drink) coffee now. I (to write) an English exercise. 7. Eric (to talk) about his holiday plans, but Kenny (not to listen) to him. He (to think) about his new car at the moment. 8. She (to think) he (to drive) dangerously. 9. Andrew (to get) up very early as he (to live) far from school. He (to be) never late. 10. The teacher (to know) the girl often (not to argue) with pupils. 11. She (to play) the violin now. She (to play) the violin every day. 12. They (to read) a lot of books. 13. I (not to wear) jeans now. 14. I (not to drink) coffee in the evening. I (to drink) coffee in the morning.

Упражнение 3

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. My friend (to live) in Toronto. 2. He (to understand) that he (to eat) noisily, but he always (to forget) about it. 3. It (to be) six o’clock in the evening now. Victor (to do) his homework. His sister (to read) a book. His mother and grandmother (to talk). 4. I (to think) she often (to worry). 5. I (to read) now. I (to read) every day. 6. They (to read) many books? 7. My friend (not to like) to play football. 8. Your friend (to do) his homework now? 9. My cousin (not to live) in Toronto. 10. Who that man (to be) who (to stand) in the doorway? — You (not to recognize) him? It (to be) John, my cousin. 11. I (to write) a letter to my grandmother who (to live) in Toronto. I (to write) to her very often. 12. Barbara’s boss (to see) she (to be) always late for work. 13. He (to sleep) now. He (to sleep) every night. 14. They (not to read) many books.

Упражнение 4

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. I (not to read) now. 2. Your friend (to go) to school in the morning? 3. The children (not to sleep) now. 4. I (to have) no time now, I (to have) dinner. 5. It (to take) me forty minutes to get to school. 6. I (to call) my son in Chicago now. I (to want) to call him every month but it (to be) very expensive. 7. We (to drink) tea now. We (to drink) tea every morning. 8. The children (to eat) soup now. 9. He (to sleep) now? 10. Look! The baby (to sleep). 11. The children (to play) in the yard every day. 12. Your family (to leave) Toronto in summer? — Yes, we always (to go) to the seaside. We all (to like) the sea. Mother (to stay) with us till the end of August, but father (to return) much earlier. 13. Hello, Pete, where you (to go)? — I (to hurry) to school. 14. You (to hear) me now? How your job (to go)? — Great! I (to enjoy) it a lot. The only problem I (to have) here (to be) that the food (to be) so good. I (to eat) too much! I (to get) really fat.

Упражнение 5

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. They (to go) to school now. They (to go) to school every morning. 2. The children (to eat) soup now? 3. We (not to go) to the country in winter. 4. The baby always (to sleep) after dinner. 5. They (not to go) to the stadium on Monday. 6. Where Tom and Nick (to be) now? — They (to have) a nice walk in the garden. 7. When your lessons (to begin) on Monday? — They (to begin) at nine o’clock. 8. Ruth (to learn) English now because she (to like) learning languages and she (to want) to impress everybody. 9. I (not to sleep) now. I (not to sleep) in the daytime. 10. The children (not to eat) soup now. 11. My sister (to eat) sweets every day. 12. My grandmother (not to work). She is on pension. 13. She (to read) in the evening. 14. What you (to do) here now? — We (to listen) to tape recordings.

Упражнение 6

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. Where your sister (to be)? — She (to do) her homework in the next room. 2. Listen to that man! You (to understand) what language he (to speak)? 3. She (not to drink) coffee now. She (not to drink) coffee after lunch. 4. You (to play) volleyball well? 5. She (not to eat) sweets now. 6. My father (not to sleep) now. He (to work) in the garden. 7. She (not to read) in the morning. 8. You (to want) to see my father? — Yes, I…. 9. It usually (to take) me an hour to do my written exercises. 10. Your English (to get) better? — Yes, I (to think) so. 11. We (not to watch) TV now. We (not to watch) TV in the morning. 12. When you (to play) volleyball? 13. They (to do) their homework in the afternoon. 14. I usually (to get) up at seven o’clock in the morning.

Упражнение 7

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. She (not to read) now. 2. Michael (to know) German rather well. He (to want) to know English, too, but he (to have) little time for it now. 3. Where Boris (to be)? I (to look) for him. — He (to have) dinner. 4. We (to know) he never (to take) risks. 5. They (not to eat) now. They (not to eat) at the lesson. 6. What Nick (to do) in the evening? 7. They (not to go) for a walk in the evening. 8. What your sister (to do) now? — She (to wash) her face and hands. 9. I (to write) an essay now. 10. What magazine you (to read)? — It (to be) a French magazine. There (to be) good articles on sports here. You (to be) interested in sports? — Yes, I…. But I (not to know) French. 11. I (to look) for a cassette recorder. You (to have) anything on sale? — Take a look at this little Sonic Walkman. — No, I (not to want) this kind. — Well, this Supersound might interest you. It (to be) a good size, it (to be) stereo and it (to have) a radio to listen to the news. 12. They (to think) he (to learn) fast, he (to know) English well and he (to speak) English fluently. 13. My mother (not to work) now. My mother (not to work) at an office. 14. He (to go) to the cinema in the evening?

Упражнение 8

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. My father (not to work) on Sunday. 2. When you usually (to come) home from school? — I (to come) at three o’clock. 3. I (not to drink) milk now. 4. We (to have) an English lesson now. 5. I (not to know) about you, but I (to go) out to the cinema. 6. Don’t disturb him. He just (to work) at his English. 7. You (to work) now? You (to work) every day? 8. We (not to dance) every day. 9. He (to work) every day. 10. Where your cousin (to work)? — He (to work) at a hospital. 11. I (to go) for a walk after dinner. 12. He (to feel) in a position to lend her money. 13. I (not to like) to watch TV very often. But at the moment I (to enjoy) my favourite film Gone with the Wind. And I (to be) very happy. 14. He (to play) now? He (to play) in the afternoon?

Упражнение 9

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. Look! Kate (to dance). 2. I (to read) books in the evening. 3. Your sister (to study) at college? — No, she (to go) to school. 4. I (not to go) to the theatre every Sunday. 5. I (to think) she (not to feel) safe there. 6. You (to have) any idea where Rick (to be)? I (not to see) him at work now. — He (to visit) his friends in Spain. 7. They (to eat) now? They (to eat) at school? 8. Kate (to sing) well? 9. I (not to read) books in the morning. 10. My cousin (to go) to school every day. 11. He (not to work) now. 12. You (to see) what I (to mean)? 13. Hurry up! We (not to have) much time left. — I (to come)! 14. Your sister (to rest) now? Your sister (to rest) after school?

Упражнение 10

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. Where he (to go) in the morning? 2. I (to write) an exercise now. 3. My mother (not to play) the piano now. She (to play) the piano in the morning. 4. He (to play) now. 5. You (to hear) what she (to say)? 6. She (to try) to lose weight, I (to think). She always (to have) light lunches. 7. What you (to do) now? What you (to do) every morning? 8. He (not to sleep) after dinner. 9. I (not to write) a letter now. 10. When you (to listen) to the news on the radio? 11. He (to play) now? 12. He (not to feel) at liberty to tell you the truth. 13. She (to try) to do her best. 14. What you (to read) now? What you (to read) after dinner?

Упражнение 11

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. My granny (to sleep) after dinner. 2. They (to play) in the yard now. 3. Who (to make) breakfast for you now? 4. My mother (to work) in a factory. 5. Ron has got a new job. He (to earn) a fortune as a managing director. They (to think) he (to be) a bag of money. 6. My little brother (not to play) the piano very well. That (to be) why he (to practise) the piano again. 7. What they (to eat) now? What they (to eat) for breakfast? 8. When you (to sleep)? 9. They (not to play) in the street now. 10. You (to read) a magazine and (to think) about your holiday at the moment? 11. My aunt (not to work) in a shop. 12. They (to come) tonight? — Yes, I (to believe) so. 13. My grandmother (to be) busy. She (to bake) an apricot pie. She (to bake) pies every Sunday. 14. What your brother (to drink) now? What your brother (to drink) in the evening?

Упражнение 12

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. Nina (not to sleep) now. 2. They (to play) in the room now? 3. They (to be) good dancers but they (not to go) to discos very often. 4. You (to work) in an office? 5. I (to believe) in myself at the moment. 6. I (to be) sad. That (to be) why I (to cry). 7. Everybody (to have) a good time now? Everybody (to have) a good time every Saturday? 8. Where John (to live)? — He (to live) in England. 9. He (to help) his mother every day. 10. What she (to talk) about right now? 11. Your father (to work) in this factory? 12. He (to dislike) walking, he (to like) jogging. 13. She (to take) medicine now? How often she (to take) medicine? 14. My friends from Switzerland (to speak four languages. 15. Who (to listen) to music on his personal stereo over there right now?

Упражнение 13

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

1. He (to help) his mother every day? 2. You (to play) chess now? 3. Where they (to go) now? Where they (to go) on Sunday? 4. Elvire (to speak) English, German and French? — Yes, she…. 5. He (not to help) his mother every day. 6. Look at the sky: the clouds (to move) slowly, the sun (to appear) from behind the clouds, it (to get) warmer. 7. They (to speak) English now? What language they usually (to speak)? 8. She only (not to speak) Italian. 9. You (to go) to school on Sunday? 10. How is your brother? — He is not well yet, but his health (to improve) day after day. 11. She (to work) in a shop now? 12. Listen! Who (to play) the piano in the next room? 13. He (to deliver) furniture now? 14. Henry usually (to wear) glasses and now he (to wear) sunglasses. 15. You (to go) to the opera with your friends? Who (to be) your favourite opera singer?

Упражнение 14

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в Present Simple.

One Sunday Agnes and her mother went to the zoo. The girl was very excited. She was interested in everything she saw. “Mother, look,” she said. “There (to be) a monkey in this cage. It (to eat) an apple. Now it (to give) a bite to another monkey. I (to think) monkeys (to like) apples very much.” “Yes, dear,” said her mother. “Now I (to want) to go and see the lions and tigers. Where they (to live), mother?” “In that big house over there. Come along.” Agnes enjoyed the lion’s house a lot. “Mother,” she said, “the tiger (to want) a drink: it (to go) to the dish of water there in the corner. And the lion (to look) right at me. You (to think) it (to want) to eat me up? When the lions and tigers (to have) their dinner, mother?” “The keepers (to bring) them large pieces of meat every day at four o’clock. And they (to make) a lot of noise before their dinner time, so everybody (to know) they (to be) hungry.”

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